- Welcome from the Chair
- Ohio State ECE At-A-Glance
- Contact Us
- Visit Us
- 5-year Strategic Plan
- Industrial Advisory Board
- ECE Outreach Program
- Administrative & Student Resources (internal)
- Job Openings in the Department
- Computer and IT Resources
- AV: The DL260 AV System
- AV: BenQ MP620p Manual
- Desktops: PC Backups
- Email: OSU Mail Server
- MSDNAA: Download Information
- Unix: Running Background Jobs
- Unix: Useful UNIX Commands
- Windows: The ER4 PC Labs
- Windows: Restoring Files
- WWW: Making Your Own WWW Page
- WWW: Password Protecting Web Pages
The projector was professionally installed and configured. Please do not attempt to "correct" anything within its configuration menus. If you believe that someone else may have "corrected" something incorrectly, please contact the Site staff at email@example.com.
The Remote Control
The remote control has its own power switch located along the right side, near the top of the remote. It is labeled "R/C ON OFF" Make sure the remote is powered on before you try to use it and please remember power it off when you are done.
To turn on the projector, select the "Power" button. When the projector is off, there is an amber light on the side of it facing the floor. When it is first turned on, this light will start flashing green... this means that the projector is on, but that it is warming up. When the projector is done warming up, this will be a solid green light... you'll also be able to see the picture projecting onto the screen at the front of the room.
|Buttons of note:
The podium contains a PC. Anyone with an ECE username and password can log into this system. There are no guest accounts. The PC has full network access and is loaded with a standard software set. It also has a CDROM drive, and a USB connection connected to the podium's connection panel.
The podium has a connection panel on its left side (as you face the podium from the PC user's position). From left to right, it's connectors are:
- Video - Yellow video input with left and right audio jacks. Corresponds to the "Video" button on the projector's remote control.
- S-Video - S-Video input with left and right audio jacks. Corresponds to the "S-Video" button on the projector's remote control.
- Component - Y, Pr and Pb inputs with left and right audio jacks. Corresponds to the "BNC" button on the projector's remote control.
- Laptop - SVGA video input. Corresponds to the "Comp" button on the projector's remote control. See note about switching between the Podium PC and Laptop video feed which share this input on the projector.
- Network - a live network connection, available for laptops or other network capable devices.
- USB - this USB connection ties back to the PC contained within the podium.
Please note that the podium PC and the laptop connector share the same source input on the projector. To switch between the two, there is a switch box inside the podium. If you open the left door, at the very top of the opened space is a switch box. Button 1 corresponds to the PC. Button 2 corresponds to the laptop.
Connecting a laptop to the projector will vary by laptop type. Different hardware types will vary as may operating systems.
What all systems will have in common:
- Your video output port on the laptop must be connected to the SVGA/"Laptop" connection port on the podium's connection panel. If your laptop uses a "standard" SVGA cable, one can be found inside the podium, if you do not have your own.
Everything else may differ and the laptop owner will need to know how their system works. If you are helping someone debug their laptop's video connection, here are a few things that might help:
- Macintosh laptops often require an adapter to work with the SVGA connector in the podium. Said adapter is the responsibility of the macintosh owner (the site staff just doesn't have one).
- Some laptops will require that a key combination be pressed such that the video signal goes to the external video port as well as (or instead of) the laptop's own screen.
- If that key combination cannot be found, some laptops will automatically select the external video port when they are rebooted with the video cable already connected to the laptop and the projector.
- When all else fails, refer to the laptops owners manual, or use the podium's PC to access the laptop vendor's web site for documentation.
Note Bene: The University Institutional Data Policy requires that all restricted data must be encrypted when placed on portable medium. This includes all backup systems including, but not limited to, tape, optical disk, USB drives and portable hard drives. To this end, it is recommended that all backups be encrypted if at all possible.
There are several methods for backing up a personal PC:
CDRW drives are highly recommended for persons with critical data. The best way to be sure of data security is to be vigilant and redundant. This means doing it yourself, and CDRW (or DVD if you have very large data sets) is an easy media to use.
Copying important files to your networked home directories is another good method. The central servers are backed up in their own time and this provides for a solid, redundant solution. The large caveat here is that users need to be fully aware that all such storage will count against their personal disk quota. Compared to the potential storage space on a PC, user home quotas are very small and extensions to that quota are not granted. Judicious selection of files to be backed up in this method is required.
For faculty and full time staff, ECE also offers a central PC backup server. It is an IBM X-series server with approximately 600GB of usable space which is shared by all the users of the system. From a windows system (or smbclient), this space is accessed as:
\\iago\pcbackupThe server is considered stable. Even so, it is still highly recommended that users back up their most important files to a local media, such as CDRW or USB Flash.
For assistance configuring backups, please contact ENGfirstname.lastname@example.org.
ECE email addresses are based on the login name a user has for accessing the ECE Unix and Windows AD systems. Thus, for any given account, the official email address is:
Certain accounts have pre-created aliases. As an example, most faculty have automatically assigned.
If interested in having a list created, please send email to ENGemail@example.com.
All faculty, staff and research scientists have accounts on the ECE mail server.
Disk quotas for these accounts are 2GB.
This storage limit includes the incoming mail spool and any data kept on the mail server (IMAP). This is a hard quota and may not be exceeded. An automatic warning will be issued when 90% of the quota has been consumed, but it should be noted that it only takes a handful of messages with large attachments to fill that last 10%.
ECE grad students who had ECE computing accounts created before September 2010, have a local email account with a quota of 200MB.
All graduate student accounts which were created after September 2010, ECE undergraduate accounts and non-ECE student accounts have their email forwarded from to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Special email accounts may be requested by faculty and staff. Persons who might qualify for special accounts include: visiting scholars, undergraduate students working on a faculty member's research project, and part-time departmental staff. If you wish to request the creation of such an account, please send email to "> .
Special accounts have the same IMAP/HTTP access as other accounts but are limited to 100MB quotas.
ECE email accounts authenticate against the ECE Active Directory. Whatever password you use to log into an ECE machine is the same you would use for your email.
*Additional Instructions for ALL supported clients can be found HERE.
Outlook is the officially supported PC-based mail reader within the Department. This documents is written using Outlook 2003. Other versions may behave differently. If you find this section to be incompatible with a newer version of Outlook, please send email to site, and we'll look into updating it.
Using the IMAP capabilities of Outlook
From the "Tools" pull-down menu, select "Options". A window will pop up with 6 tabs and many subsystem tools. The following are the recommended/required settings for the ECE Department:
From the Outlook primary window, there are other options that should be set. The following are the recommended/required settings for the ECE Department:
Your system is now configured to use Outlook as an IMAP mail client.
It is recognized that Mail is the new, default mail client for Macs. If a native Mac solution is desired, then Mail can be configured with the imap.ece.ohio-state.edu and smtp.ece.ohio-state.edu server names. If additional assistance is needed, please contact site. If a larger group of users begin using this utility, more comprehensive documentation will be provided.
It is recommended that Mac users try Outlook as their mail interface.
ECE utilizes a commercial anti-spam gateway. It generates a digest once per day of all messages that have been placed in a given addresses quarantine, so that the user of that address may scan the list for any false-positives. The quarantine is maintained for a limited time, so it is recommended that the digest be reviewed once per day, and at least once per week, lest the mail referenced in the digest be removed from the server before it can be released.
This document covers these subjects
- Policies on background jobs
- Foreground vs. background jobs
- Output and input for background jobs
- Redirecting input and output
- Unattended background jobs
- Running multiple unattended background jobs is not allowed
- Commands for manipulating jobs
Policies on background jobs
- If you are actually sitting at a machine, there are no limits on the number of background jobs you may have on that machine.
- You are limited to one unattended background job, on one machine, at a time.
- That job must be `nice'd (that is, it must be set to run at a low priority) to minimize the impact on other users of the machine.
- Locking the screen and leaving the machine is not an acceptable way of running unattended jobs.
- If you violate these rules, your background jobs will be killed and you may lose your computing privileges.
Foreground vs. background jobs
If you don't want to wait for a command to finish before you see the prompt again, you can run the command in the background. Any shell command can be run in the background by typing an ampersand (&) at the end of the command line. The following command:
- wc /hp-ux &
will count the number of bytes in the UNIX kernel, and it will take a second or two to complete. Try it with and without the ampersand and notice how the shell doesn't wait for the command to complete when you execute it in the background. When you start a background job, you'll get a message that looks like this:
-  8397
The number in brackets is a `job number' assigned by the shell to the background job, and the second number is a `process number' assigned by the operating system. When a background job is completed, you'll get a notice from the shell that looks like this:
-  Done wc /hp-ux
Output and input for background jobs
When background jobs require input from the keyboard, they stop running. You must bring them into the foreground in order to supply them with input from the keyboard.
Because of this, it is usually a good idea to redirect the input and output of background jobs.
Redirecting input and output
Output redirection can be used for any command, not just background commands. For instance, the command
- ls -R ~ >listing
will do a directory listing of your home directory and all of its subdirectories and save the output in a file called listing. You do not need to create the output file in advance---it will be created if it does not already exist. Caution! When you redirect output to an existing file, that file is overwritten. The previous contents will be lost. If you wish to append the output of a command to a file, use the redirection operator >> instead of >. To use input redirection, you must first create the file and put some appropriate input into it. You can do this with an editor such as emacs or vi. For instance, if the file testrun contains a series of Matlab commands, then the command
- matlab <testrun >testrun.out
will cause Matlab to take its commands from the file testrun and to put the results in the file testrun.out.
Unattended background jobs
However, it is a rule of this computing site that unattended jobs must be nice'd. This means that they run at a lower priority. The jobs will still run to completion, but they will not interfere with other people using the machine. For example,
- nohup nice matlab < inputfile > outputfile &
will run Matlab in the background at a lower priority (with input and output redirected to files). csh and tcsh have a built in nice command that follows the syntax listed above. If you are using a different shell, or if you are explicitly invoking /bin/nice, see the man page for the correct syntax.
If you forget to nice a background job when you start, or if the job takes longer than you anticipated and you decide to log out and go to lunch, you can use the command
renice -n 19 to lower the priority of already-running jobs. The argument to the renice command is a process number (the second of the two numbers reported when you started the job.) For example, the command:
- renice -n 19 8397
will lower the priority for the job whose process number is 8397.
If you've forgotten the process number, you can use the command
- jobs -l
to list all of your jobs and their process numbers. Note: the jobs command only knows about jobs started from the same window. See the manual page for the ps command to learn how to find out about jobs started from a different window.
Running multiple unattended background jobs is not allowed
To run your commands one at a time, create a file containing a list of the commands you want to run. This is called a `shell script'. Then you can run the shell script, and each of the commands in it will be executed in turn. You run a shell script by typing its file name at the shell prompt (don't forget the & if you want it to run in the background and nice if you plan to leave before it finishes.) You may need to set execute permission on the file so that the script is runnable---use the chmod command, like this:
- chmod u+x filename
Commands for manipulating jobs
- The shell provides a number of commands for manipulating background jobs:
||(Press Z while holding down the Ctrl key.) Suspends the current foreground job. You can type this any time and you'll get a shell prompt. You can then put the current job into the background with the bg command or resume running it in the foreground with the fg command.|
||Lists current background jobs in the current window.|
||Brings a background job to the foreground.|
||Restarts a stopped or suspended background job.|
||Stops a background job. This doesn't kill the job, but it will not continue executing until it is restarted.|
||Terminates a background job.|
||Waits for all background jobs to terminate.|
||Runs jobs at lower priority.|
- Consult the csh manual page for more details on how to use these commands. The renice and ps commands have their own manual pages.
This document covers these subjects
- Changing your password
- File manipulation commands
- Directory commands
- Electronic mail
- Document preparation
- On-line manual pages
- Miscellaneous commands
Changing your password
- Change your password. Do this regularly, and keep your password secret.
File manipulation commands
cp file1 file2
- Copies file1 to file2.
mv file1 file2
- Moves file1 to file2. If the arguments are in same directory, this command just renames file1 to file2. If file2 is a directory, file1 is moved to that directory
- Removes filename.
cat file1 file2
- Concatenates file1 and file2 and prints the result to the screen.
cat file1 file2 > file3
- Concatenates file1 and file2 and puts the result into file3.
- Prints file1 to the screen, but pauses when the screen is full.
- Another paginator, similar to more.
- Sends file1 to a printer.
- Cancel a printer request. You must use the job identification reported by the lp command when you ran it.
- Show the print queues. You can use this to show how many print requests are ahead of (or behind) yours in the queue. lpq will also report request ids, if you forget them.
- List the contents of the current directory.
- List contents of the directory dirname.
- List all the files in a directory, including ones whose names begin with a period (.)
- Long listing. List the contents of a directory, with the protection, owner, size, modification date, and name of the files.
- Long listing. Synonym for ls -l.
- Print working directory. Prints the name of the current directory.
- Change directory. Changes the current directory to dirname.
- Change to parent directory. Moves up one level in the directory hierarchy.
- cd with no arguments will change the current directory to the home directory.
- ~ is shorthand for the home directory, so cd ~ will change the current directory to the home directory.
- ~username is shorthand for username's home directory, so cd ~username will change the current directory to that user's home directory.
- Make directory. Creates a new, empty directory named dirname.
- Remove directory. A directory must be empty before it can be removed.
- Disk usage. Summarizes the space taken up by all the files in a directory and its subdirectories.
- Report information about your disk quota.
- Bring up the Pine mail reader.
- Send mail to another user.
- Emacs editor.
- vi editor.
- Invokes the LaTeX typesetting program.
- dvips converts the output of LaTeX to postscript for the printers. The output is automatically sent to the printers unless the -o option is used.
- Spelling checker.
- Drawing program.
- DVI previewer. Displays a DVI file produced by LaTeX on the screen. You can use previewers to check how a document looks without wasting paper to print it.
- Postscript previewer. Displays a postscript file on the screen. Another good way to save paper.
- c compiler.
- c++ compiler (GNU).
- Fortran compiler.
- Pascal compiler.
- Utility for building and maintaining large programs.
Online manual pages
- Bring up the on-line manual page for a command.
- Bring up the on-line manual page for the man command.
man -k keyword
- Searches all the manual pages for ones relevant to the keyword.
- Shows current date and time.
- Shows other users logged into a system.
- Shows other users logged into a system, and what they are doing.
grep pattern filename
- Searches files for lines containing pattern.
- Exits an xterm window. If you are logged in remotely, this command will log you out of the system.
- Logging In
- Changing Passwords
- Logging Out
- File Storage
- Usage Policies & Guidelines
The first thing you need to know is how to log in. Press
Ctrl-Alt-Del. This means to hit and hold the Control key, then press and hold the Alt key, and then press the Delete key (and then release all three keys). This will pop up a window asking for your username and password and into which system you wish to log in.
USERNAME: Your username is the same as it is on the Unix and Email systems. By default it is your last name followed by your first initial. ECE usernames are limited to 8 characters in length. So, if your last name is more than 7 characters long, your username should be the first 7 characters of your last name followed by your first initial. In some cases, a last name is very common (at the time of this writing, there were 22 persons with the last name "Lee" on these systems), and then there may be more than one person who would have the same username. At this point convention is broken, as everyone must have a unique username. Please see the lab consultants in either DL557 or CL260 if you think your username is non-standard.
PASSWORD: Your default password is the string "EE" followed by the last four digits of your EMPLID number followed by your first and last initial. Note that the passwords are now synced between the PCs and Red Hat systems, but not the Mail server.
SYSTEM: The Windows machine may offer you more than one system to "Log on to". You always want to log into the
ECE domain. Logging into another domain will not be possible, and even if you can do so, logging into the local machine will limit your network capabilities.
Ctrl-Alt-Del to bring up the Windows Security Menu. A new window will appear with several options, including logging out and changing your password. Your old windows will be hidden, but have not been destroyed.
Change Password...". You will now be prompted for your current password and your new password. You will also have a confirmation box where you must type in the new password a second time (this is to decrease the possibility of typing errors). Hit the
OK button to have the new password take effect.
There are many ways to do this, but the following is the recommended method within ER4.
- Close all of your running processes.
- Bring up the Windows Security Window by pressing
- Select the
"OK"in the pop-up confirmation window.
- Turn off the monitor (NOT the CPU), straighten the area around your computer, and push in your chair as you leave.
SERVER STORAGE: Every account on the ER4 PCs has a 2.0GB home directory. This is the same space as is each student's home directory on the Unix systems. It is mapped to the PC as the Z drive and should be used for all file storage. NOTE BENE: Files saved in the temp space of the C Drive of the local Windows system are not saved to your home directory. Such files may be lost between login sessions and in fact probably will be... use the Z drive for all file storage.
LOCAL CLIENT DISKS: Some of the software on the systems requires that the local client disks be writable. These disks are only to be used by the software's internal processes that require that access. Student files saved to the client disks violate site policy and may be deleted without warning. Note also that cloning software is regularly run against these machine and will wipe out user data without SysAdmin intervention. Data lost from the client machines is irretrievable.
CDRW Drives: Each ER4 PC has an internal CDRW drive. These are the intended method for long term file storage. It is highly recommended that all students make use of these drives for personal backups.
XILINX: Xilinx is a programmable logic software package used in ECE261 and ECE561, it will likely be your first PC oriented software package whose use is required by your classwork. A student version of Xilinx also comes with the textbook require for those two classes.
MATLAB: Matlab is available on the ER4 Windows Systems. It is a fully functional system and can be used for all class projects. However, Matlab jobs submitted to a Windows system require the user to be with the PC for the duration of the job. Some Matlab jobs can take a long time to run. Those jobs are better submitted to the ER4 Unix systems which allow for untended, back ground processes.
MICROSOFT OFFICE: As a part of the University-Microsoft agreepemtn, MS Office is available on all of the ER4 PCs. A "full" installation was made, but this does not necessarily include every extension or template for each given package. If you find need of something that has not been installed, please send a request to site.
All usage policies that apply to the Unix labs also apply to the PC labs. Thus no eating or drinking anything other than water in secured containers, is allowed in the labs, and the machines are only to be used for ECE classwork, etcetera...
SYSTEM MODIFICATIONS: Any modifications to the system, be it through modification to the registry or to system files is absolutely forbidden. The systems are set up to run as multi-user workstations and as such are not to be modified by individuals. If you feel that a system modification is required for your scholastic works, please send email to site, and we will take it under advisement.
MULTIPLE PROCESSES: Unlike the HPs, there are no remote users on the ER4 PC systems. Thus, there are no limits on the number of processes that you run (limited to one machine). However, please note that resources on any machine are finite, and the more you run, the slower any given single task will be performed. For best performance from the PCs, please only run what you have to.
SCREEN LOCKS: Please lock your terminal if you are stepping away from it. To do so, bring up the Windows Security Window (by pressing
Ctrl-Alt-Del) and select
Lock Computer. Note that PCs are only to be locked for short periods of time... don't exceed 10 minutes or you may be logged off.
PRINTING: the same printing policies apply to the ER4 PCs as to the Unix systems. The quota system is common between the two systems. Using the printer in the PC lab will count against your Unix quota and vice-versa.
FILE STORAGE: all users have 2.0GB of storage space in their home accounts. This storage is deemed sufficient for student academic purposes. It can be reached as the Z drive. Note: for most users (you should know if you are an exception), your ER4 Windows Desktop, My Documents, and Application Data folders are all redirected into folders of those same names on your Z drive. So files saved on your desktop, count against your quote.
SOFTWARE INSTALLATIONS: users are not to install any software on the ER4 systems. This includes installing software in your home directories (Z drive) so that they can be run on the system. This most specifically includes networked programs like chat, file sharing, and instant messaging systems. Violators of this policy will loose account privileges. Requests for software related to academic pursuits should be made to the Site staff.
GAMES, CHAT & INSTANT MESSAGING: The ER4 PCs are to be used for school work only. Any extraneous use should be restricted to off-peak times, and should be restricted to programs installed by the systems administrators (see above). If asked by a staff member, or even by another student, non-class related work should be suspended immediately.
FILE SHARING: the installation and/or use of file sharing software including but not limited to those of the P2P type (ie: Kaza, EDonkey, etc) are explicit violations of University and Departmental policy (both in the student labs and on University Networks in general). Violations may result in loss of account and network-access privileges.
REBOOTING: Sometimes PCs have to be rebooted. It's just the nature of these systems. However, such reboots should only be performed by ER4 staff. If you feel your PC needs to be rebooted, please see the student consultant in CL260. Please do not reboot it yourself.
File restoration with ER4 is now handled exclusively through the Windows systems. To utilize this ability, go to your Z drive, and find the folder that contains (or contained) the file or folder you are seeking. Right click and select "Properties". Here you will find a tab that says "Previsous Versions".
Find the "Time" that the corresponds to the version of the folder you are interested in restoring. Highlight this line and select your action:
- View: This allows you to see the content of a folder. You can drag and drop from this view.
- Copy: This lets you designate a location to which the folder will be copied.
- Restore: This restores the folder to its previous location. NOTE BENE: this will over write current content. We generally recommend that you use one of the other two options.
Creating Files and Directories
To set up the files and directories you need, execute the following commands from any shell (terminal) window on any of the ER4 Unix Systems:
chmod o+x ~/
chmod o+x public_html
chmod o+r public_html/index.html
Those commands do the following things:
- Changes the curent directory to your root directory.
- Creates a
public_htmldirectory to store your WWW files. All the files that are part of your WWW page must reside in this directory or a subdirectory of it.
- Creates a blank file called
index.html. This is the first file that will be loaded by people visiting your WWW pages.
- The three
chmodcommands set proper permissions, allowing the WWW server to access the files in your
Your Address on the Web
The publishable URL for your page is as follows
Substitute your username (the name you use to log into your account), for username in the above examples. So, if your username is
userj, the URL for your personal WWW page would be:
It should be noted that while the above address is what should be used for publications and branding, the URL will rewrite itself as it is redirected to a secondary server:
This is a function of our split-server responsibilities and this rewriten address should not be published as it is subject to change without notice.
Writing your Personal Page
The ECE web server supports basic HTML for end-user web pages.
Use a text editor such as emacs to edit
~/public_html/index.htmlto your liking. Following are some reference materials to help familiarize you with the HTML language:
- W3Schools: http://www.w3schools.com/html/default.asp
- HTML Goodies: http://www.htmlgoodies.com/primers/html/
- HTML Code Tutorial: http://www.htmlcodetutorial.com/
- The Bare Bones Guide to HTML: http://werback.com/barebones/"
A few notes from the EECF/RCC4 Admins about writing your pages:
- Quota: Your WWW pages, being stored in your user account, do count against your disk quota.
- Consultation: Site does not actively support users who are attempting to create WWW pages. While you may email your questions to
webmaster, such questions are outside the normal scope of work and are given a low response priority.
- Content: The department of Electrical & Computer Engineering has an Honor Code and The Ohio State University has various policies regarding student, faculty, and staff conduct. We expect that all users will attempt to adhere to these policies as regards the content of their WWW pages, and note that Site Administration will cooperate with the Department or the University if those policies are violated. Any user's account found to be hosting copyrighted materials will be suspending pending a review. And finally, Site Adminstration reserves the right to shut down any WWW pages that produce an undue load on the network or servers - regardless of content.
Listing your Page
There is a list of user accounts for the department, including links to WWW pages if the user has one. These lists are created weekly by a system job which searches each user account for a
public_htmldirectory. At this writing, the job runs every Sunday morning at 1:30am.
If you have created a personal WWW page, there is nothing that you have to do in order to be listed. The next time the job runs, it will find your pages and automatically update your entry in the list
Some links in the listing return a 403 Forbidden error. This is because the user has not set proper file permissions (see the
chmodcommands at the top of this document).
It's important to note that the username/password pairs used here are totally seperate from actual user account information. The authentication information is of your creation - you establish the username/password, and the "users" cannot change them (only you can do that, using the
htpasswd command). Be certain that your users know that the username/password information you give them is seperate from their own user account information - it's only for accessing this protected data.
- Create a seperate directory in your
~/public_htmldirectory, and set its permissions. This is where you'll keep your password-protected web pages. It doesn't have to be called
protected-dir, but that's what we're using for this example. If you use a differenty name, be sure to use that name instead of
protected-dirthroughout all of this.
chmod o+rx ~/public_html/protected-dir
- Create the files
.htpasswdinside the new directory
.htpasswdfile contains the username/password data for your protected directory.
.htaccessfile defines the kind of protection, and tells the server where your
- Set file protections for the files. Both the file must be accessible by the www user, a non-privved account that the WWW server runs as.
chmod o+r ~/public_html/protected-dir/.htaccess
chmod o+r ~/public_html/protected-dir/.htpasswd
- add user(s) to the
htpasswd ~/public_html/protected-dir/.htpasswd user
You'll be prompted for a password for the user. Repeat as needed for as many user names as you need.
- edit the
.htacessfile (with, for example, pico or emacs) so that it looks like the following chunk of code. Substitute the result of "
echo $HOME" for
FULL-PATH-TO-HOME-DIR, and substitute the usernames you entered in the previous step for user1, user2, etc.:
require user user1
require user user2
- Now you can put your web pages inside protected-dir, and anyone who tries to access them via the WWW will have to enter a valid username/passwd before the pages appear. The URL for your protected pages will be:
Where username is your username. The above URL will look for a file called index.html in your protected directory. For other filenames, append the filename to the above URL. Of course, you need to make sure that all the files still have proper permissions for local file access:
chmod o+r ~/public_html/protected-dir/*
- You're done!